• What is truth?
  • Can we know it?
  • Does God exist?
  • What is the historical evidence for Christianity?
  • How should we interpret the Bible?
  • What does the Bible teach?

My studies (in white) and recommended links (in yellow) can be accessed by scrolling down the home page or selecting the desired page from the menu

Knowledge from General Revelation (Nature)

Understand the evidence for truth, knowledge, God, Jesus, and the Scriptures


Philosophical Foundations for a Christian Worldview

 2023 Class Downloads

My class handouts and presentation from my 2023 Apologetics series at First Redeemer Church (with emphasis on the philosophical foundations for Theism)


Complete Apologetics 2022 Class Downloads

My class notes from my Christian Apologetics series at First Redeemer Church


If I could recommend only one resource written at the popular level to help Christians defend knowledge, objective truth, God, the possibility of miracles, the New Testament documents, Jesus, and the Bible, it would be Geisler and Turek's book I Don't Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist, along with Geisler and Jimenez' official study guide.


Why Believe the Bible?

A 15-step outline for defending Biblical Christianity from the ground up, which can also serve as an apologetics course outline


Evidence for Faith

My Evidence for Faith class color slides on apologetics and bibliology. Many slides are from the I Don't Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist Power Point Package.  




Evidence for Faith (EFF) class at North Lanier Church in 2017

MP3 podcasts and handouts from a nine-session bootcamp I taught on Apologetics and Bibliology. Note: This class was taught to a Christian audience. I would not use so many Bible references in the early segments if it was aimed at a nonChristian audience.


To download mp3 files, after you click link below, right click on the sound bar and click "save audio as" to save file to your device.


EFF 1. Faith and Reason

Mp3 audio recording (class notes in section below)


EFF 2. Truth and Knowledge

Mp3 audio recording (class notes in section below)


EFF 3. Arguments for God's Existence

Mp3 audio recording not available at this time. See handouts of EFF 3 class below


EFF 4. The Problem of Evil

Mp3 audio recording (class notes in section below)


EFF 5. Miracles and the Authenticity of the New Testament Documents

Mp3 audio recording (class notes in section below)


EFF 6. The Truthfulness of the New Testament Documents

Mp3 audio recording (class notes in section below)


EFF 7. Jesus of Nazareth and His View of Scripture

Mp3 audio recording (class notes in section below)


EFF 8. The Bible as the Word of God

Mp3 audio recording (class notes in section below)


EFF 9. How to Interpret the Bible

Mp3 audio recording (class notes in section below)


Why Believe the Bible?

In reverse order, defending Biblical Christianity from the top down by asking "why" until the epistemological bedrock foundation is reached.


Why Believe the Bible?

A concise six-step argument defending Biblical Christianity from the ground up


We Can Know

Today, Christians are often viewed as having only preferences and opinions. But Christianity is about truth and the knowledge of God


The Four Pillars of Knowledge

A graph of how Christians can have a philosophically, theologically, and spiritually  robust body of knowledge


Philosophical Arguments

A short explanation of philosophical arguments (the means of rational persuasion) and an exercise with answer code 


Six Arguments for God's Existence

A one-page summary of six arguments for the existence of a transcendent God (God made all) which refutes atheism (No God at all) and pantheism (God is all)


The Teleological Argument for God's Existence

The intricate fine-tuning of physics for life is best explained by design, versus chance or necessity


Can Darwinism Explain New Life Forms?

Short edited excerpt from Dr. Stephen Meyer's book, Darwin's Doubt. Charles Darwin had concerns about his own theory being capable of explaining new life forms. The latest scientific discoveries have justified his concerns.    


The Problem of Evil

If an all-knowing, all-powerful, all-good God exists, why does evil exist?


Answering Objections to the Moral Argument for God's Existence

Objective moral values and duties exist and demand a moral Law-giver. All objections to this truth fail.


Certainty and Necessity

Divine foreknowledge and human libertarian freedom are logically compatible. The fallacy of conflating certainty with necessity leads to open theism or theological fatalism/determinism.


Philosophical Considerations on Origins

Some basic guidleines regarding the intersection of Biblical and scientific interpretations


Three Views of Origins

Three Christian views of the creation of the universe and life are compared



I Don't Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist

In this book, Norman Geisler and Frank Turek give a step by step argument for Christianity. You also can order a workbook and curriculum. A must-read for Christians living in an anti-Christian world


Answering the Tough Questions about Life and God

This thoughtful audio (mp3) series by Ken Boa is presented in 19 lectures on various "tough questions" about life and God


Welcome to College

In this book, Jonathan Morrow, director of Impact 360 Institute, writes what Dr. J.P. Moreland says is "The single best volume I have ever read for preparing students to follow Jesus and flourish as His disciples in college."


Apologetics 315

A wealth of apologetics resources, including free mp3 podcasts


Reasonable Faith.org

The website of William Lane Craig who politely demolishes the atheist's best arguments with logical precision and thoroughness



Thoughtful, cutting-edge apologetics and evangelism resources


One-Minute Apologist

Quick credible answers to tough questions, answered by today's best defenders of the faith


Cross Examined.org

Frank Turek, lecturer at college campuses and churches, is always informative and entertaining


Stand to Reason

Greg Koukl's clear thinking and conversational tactics are a powerful combination for helping people overcome objections to Christianity


Cold-Case Christianity

Ex-atheist and homicide detective J. Warner Wallace uses the principles of cold-case investigations to show the evidential credibility of the Christian faith


The Discovery Institute

Discovery Institute’s Center for Science and Culture advances the understanding that human beings and nature are the result of intelligent design rather than a blind and undirected process


Virtual Office of Richard G. Howe

Richard G. Howe is Professor Emeritus of philosophy and apologetics at Southern Evangelical Seminary. He is a popular speaker and author who lives in Cumming, GA


Pluralism, Relativism, and Tolerance

Dick Keys' great article on L'Abri Fellowship website. An audio of this message can be found on bethinking.org


The Absolute Truth About Relativism

In this book, Dr. Jefrey Breshears calls postmodern relativism the fundamental heresy of our time and then proceeds to logically dismantle it


Stephen C. Meyer.org

Dr. Stephen Meyer, author of Signature in the Cell and Darwin's Doubt, rebuts Darwinism with recent scientific evidence


Programming of Life

A video about biology and information sciences that powerfully demonstrates the inadequacy of Neo-Darwinism as a plausible explanation for life


The Areopagus

A Christian Study Center led by historian Dr. Jefrey Breshears who holds classes in the North Metro-Atlanta area


Satan's Bookshelf

Dr. Jefrey Breshears critiques the worst books written in modern history. This series helps to explain why we find ourselves in post-Christian America. Be sure to click older entries to get all the mp3 podcasts.


Introduction to Philosophy: A Christian Perspective

Book by Norman Geisler and Paul Feinberg. What is knowledge? What is reality? What is the ultimate? What is good or right?  



Also, see favorite links under my email address (or menu item The Case for Aplologetics)


Knowledge from Special Revelation (Scripture)

Know what God has revealed about Himself and mankind through Jesus and His Word


How to Interpret the Bible

A detailed presentation of the principles of Biblical Interpretation


The Three Pillars of Correct Bible Interpretation

A graph of how a Christian can objectively interpret the Bible by seeking the willed meaning of the authors from the text


Why Christians Disagree on Spiritual Matters

While there is great agreement among evangelical Christians on the essentials, apart from a lack of training in Biblical hermeneutics and exegesis, other factors can be at work to cause disagreements


The Trinity

A one-page study summarizing the scriptural basis of the triune nature of God


The Will of God

A one-page study that attempts to harmomize the many aspects of the will of God


The Equitable Judgment of God

The study of salvation with an emphasis on God's equity and impartiality in judgment


The Death of Christ

A two-page study summarizing the import of the death of Jesus Christ


The Resurrection of Christ

A two-page study summarizing the miraculous bodily resurrection of Jesus Christ


The Holy Spirit

A detailed study on the person and work of the Holy Spirit


The Scriptures

A one-page study summarizing what the scriptures say about themselves


The Doctrine of Man

a two-page study summarizing the biblical doctrine of mankind



A detailed study on how God saves sinners from His just condemnation. It addresses salvation with respect to God, Christ, the sinner, election, grace, works, free will, faith, repentance, regeneration, baptism, and the essential content of the gospel.


Two Views of Salvation

A detailed comparison of a Calvinstic cause-effect model and an Arminian influence-response model, with more categories than the typical TULIP


Harmonizing God's Sovereignty and Man's Free Will

A presentation of proper methodology and a survey of six models.


Two Extreme Views of Salvation: Lordship versus Free Grace

A short comparison of Lordship versus Free Grace salvation with a middle position that avoids these two extreme views.



A detailed study of faith's relationship to election, God's gifting, grace, evidence, reason, choice, belief, trust, sight, regeneration, confession and baptism.


Spirit Baptism

A detailed study of Holy Spirit baptism as occurring simultaneous to faith in Jesus Christ for all believers in this age and as distinct from water baptism


The Righteousness of the Believer

A one-page study of the righteousness of the Christian as described in Scripture


Judgment of the Believer

Three judgments of the Christian (keeping the table columns straight is vital)


Regeneration Follows Faith

A positive case for the logical order of salvation with scriptural implications for the meaning of "dead in sins". Also a critique of Wayne Grudem's article on regeneration and a Facebook debate with Calvinists.


Baptism Outline

A short study outline of baptism



A detailed study of baptism, including a critique of infant baptism and "occasion of salvation" water baptism


Baptism Quiz

A baptism quiz based on the Baptism study above, with answer code


Six Views of Water Baptism

A short summary of six basic views on water baptism


Baptism and the Covenants

A graphic comparison of Presbyterian paedobaptism with Baptist credobaptism


The Preservation of Scripture

A presentation on some of the key issues surrounding the preservation of scripture


The Preservation of Scripture

A short paper on some of the key issues surrounding the preservation of scripture


Four Views on the Preservation of Scripture

Have the scriptures been preserved over the generations? If so, how? Four views are compared.


Bible Differences

A detailed look at a sample of Bible differences with an overview of their underlying textual and translation theories


The Continuation and End of the Mosaic Law

My attempt to apply a consistent hermeneutical approach to harmonize the verses regarding how the Mosaic Law applies to New Covenant believers


Quiz on Ephesians

An eight-page quiz on the book of Ephesians, with answer code provided


Justification by Works--Thoughts on James 2:14-26

A presentation on James' justification with works, harmonized with Paul's justification without works


Speaking with Tongues

A non-cessationist, non-charismatic view of the sign and gift of tongues


Four Views on Tongues

A short comparison of four views on tongues


The Second Coming of Jesus Christ

A three-page study on the second coming of Jesus Christ


Three Basic Views on the Millenium

A graphic illustration of the three basic views on the thousand-year reign of Jesus Christ (Rev 20)


The Christian Eschatology Landscape

Some guidelines, definitions, and interpretational differences that have shaped Christian eschatology (study of last things)


Second Coming Glossary

Definitions of terms associated with the second coming of Jesus Christ


Eschatology Quiz

A short quiz based on the Second Coming Glossary, with answer code provided



A short critique of Preterism (Christ's coming is past) in comparison with progressive fulfillment


Two Major Views of Eschatological Fulfillment

A comparison of Dispensational Premillenialism with Covenant Amillennialism with an emphasis on the hermeneutical differences 


Daniel's 70th Week

A graph of five different views of Daniel's 70th week


Does God Love All or Some?

This book by Ex-Calvinist Ronnie Rogers exposes the errors of Calvinism with sound reason and scriptural exegesis. The Calvinist concept of God is shown to be radically different from the concept of God presented in scripture.  


The Order of Faith and Election in John’s Gospel:
You Do Not Believe Because You Are Not My Sheep

This article by Robert Hamilton offers an historically-grounded contextual exegesis of the election passages in John with greater explanatory power than the ideologically-driven Augustinian/Calvinist interpretation.  


Six Bad Habits of New Testament Scholars

YouTube video of Dr. Lydia McGrew explaining the fallacious thinking of many  contemporary New Testament scholars who prioritize genre over harmonization--even some "conservative scholars" wrongly contending that fictionalization and fabrication are consistent with historical reliability and/or inerrancy  


Big Book of Bible Difficulties

Drs Norman Geisler and Thomas Howe explain supposed Bible contradictions


Defending Inerrancy

A website intellectually defending the doctrine of Biblical inerrancy


S Lewis Johnson mp3 podcasts

Caveat: I don't agree with S. Lewis Johnson's Calvinist statements


Reading to Grow: A Field Guide to the Bible

Book by Bernard James Mauser


Exegetical Fallacies

Book by D.A. Carson


Basic Bible Interpretation

Book by Roy Zuck


Introduction to Biblical Interpretation

Book by William Klein, Craig Blomberg, and Robert Hubbard

Knowledge Practically Applied in Daily Living

Apply the truth we know in practical ways to honor God, help others, and be blessed


Life & Ministry of Jesus 2023 Class at FRC

Class presentations from a nine-week study on Jesus' strategy for making disciples.


Learning to Live Like Jesus

Being conformed to the image of Jesus Christ is about the formation of character qualities referred to as the fruit of the Spirit


Christian Parenting Checklist

Practical advice on parenting from some Christian authors I've read


Christian Relationship Checklist

Life is about relationships. God gives us instructions about how to flourish in our many relationships  


Are Christians Commanded to Tithe?

No. There is not one verse in the Bible where Christians are commanded to tithe (i.e. give 10%). All proof texts to prove otherwise are misinterpreted.


Spiritual Gifts

A two-page study on spiritual gifts. Every Christian has the capacity to glorify God and edify the church. What does the Bible say about these spiritual gifts?


Church Discipline

A graph illustrating the scriptural process for the discipline and restoration of a sinning, unrepentant believer



Verses showing God's disapproval of sex outside of His institution of marriage (which is a male-female covenant)



Verses showing God's disapproval of unfaithfulness in association with His institution of marriage


Marriage Stress Test

Electronics manufacturers purposely stress their products to identify and correct faults to  improve the product. Similarly, the demands of marriage will identify character faults. Correcting these faults is the key to an ever-improving marriage.


My Commitment to Marital Faithfulness

A call to marital faithfulness with a sober assessment of the destructive consequences of adultery


Conflict Resolution

Conflicts in relationships will arise. God's way of resolving conflicts and making peace is always right.


The Circles of Forgiveness

A graph depicting a way to understand God's forgiveness of sinners and our forgiveness of one another


You and Your Conscience

Is it a sin to drink alcohol? watch morally questionable movies? eat pork in front of my Jewish brother who thinks it is wrong? Ad infinitum. It depends.



Walk Thru the Bible

Daily devotional and other helpful resources


Phil Fernandes sermons and lectures

Dr. Phil Fernandes is a Pastor, Author, and Apologist with hundreds of hours of lectures and sermons available to the public


Tactics for Discussing Christianity

by Greg Koukl, who based on his extensive experience defending Christianity, shows how to initate conversations and clearly, cleverly, and persuasively present the truth


Conversational Evangelism

by Norman and David Geisler. The world has changed. A new approach is needed to help people be more willing to hear the gospel.


Conversational Apologetics

Article and mp3 on the intersection of Biblical evangelism and Biblical apologetics, and its applicability to all Christians


Christian Persuaders

A series of interviews with gifted and passionate communicators of the gospel. Download the interviews


Pascal's Method for Presenting Christianity

"Men despise religion. They hate it and are afraid it may be true. The cure for this is first to show that religion is not contrary to reason, but worthy of reverence and respect. Next make it attractive, make good men wish it were true, and then show that it is."


Living on the Edge

with Chip Ingram


Discerning the Will of God

article by Dr. Ken Boa


What is Marriage?

video by Ryan Anderson


Family Life Today

with Dennis Rainey


Travis Echols' Studies and Recommended Resources

All my studies are works in progress and I welcome your comments.

Evidence for Faith

Sunday Morning Class

The Faith & Reason Forum 

2nd Thursday of each month in Cumming , GA

Below are some of my favorite links defending traditional apologetics

Love God with All Your Mind

In this video, JP Moreland explains the history of Christian anti-intellectualism and the need for Christian apologetics

I Don't Have Enough Faith to be an Atheist

In this book, Norman Geisler and Frank Turek give a step by step argument for Christianity. You also can order a workbook and curriculum.

The Need for Apologetics

Norman Geisler shows why every Christian needs to be able to defend the Christian faith, not the least of which is because God commanded it in Scripture

Why Young Adults Are Really Leaving the Church

Klinton Silvey, founder of Life-in-Progress Ministries, hits the nail on the head and exposes a serious blind-spot in many churches and Christian schools

The Problem of Christian Anti- Intellectualism

In this book, Dr. Jefrey Breshears shows the disastrous effects of Christian anti-Intellectualism, which is a departure from historic Christianity

Reasoning About Fedeism

This article highlights the self-refuting and unscriptural nature of fedeism (the idea that faith is a blind leap into the irrational realm--that faith and reason cannot work together)

Some Brief Critical Thoughts on Presuppositionalism

In this paper, Dr. Richard Howe critiques Presuppositionalism, showing how their arguments against Classical Apologetics fail

Gordon Clark Presuppositionalism

Dr. Phil Fernandes critiques Gordon Clark's Presuppositionalism

Cornelius Van Til Presuppositionalism

Dr. Phil Fernandes critiques Cornelius Van Til's Presuppositionalism

“False ideas are the greatest obstacles to the reception of the gospel. We may preach with all the fervor of a reformer and yet succeed only in winning a straggler here and there, if we permit the whole collective thought of a nation or of the world to be controlled by ideas which, by the resistless force of logic, prevent Christianity from being regarded as anything more than a harmless delusion. Under such circumstances, what God desires us to do is to destroy the obstacle at its root.” J. Gresham Machen

“Christians need to see beyond their immediate evangelistic contact to grasp a wider picture of Western thought and culture....A person raised in a cultural mileau in which Christianity is still seen as an intellectually viable option will display an openness to the gospel which a person who is secularized will not. For the secular person you may as well tell him to believe in fairies or leprechauns as in Jesus Christ!"  William Lane Craig

Print | Sitemap
© Travis Echols